is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral typically found as stalactites and botryoidal coatings on the surfaces of underground cavities.
The mineral was given this name, of Greek origin, due to its resemblance to the leaves of the mallow plant.
When this material is cut into slabs and pieces, the cut surfaces often exhibit concentric banding.
Even though turquoise is found around the world, the right type of minerals must be in just the right place for millions of years for it to be formed.
Turquoise deposits usually form in iron-rich limonite or sandstone. Limonite creates dark brown markings in turquoise, while sandstone creates tan markings. These can resemble splotches or veins and are called matrix.
Malachite is found worldwide including Democratic Republic of Congo, Australia, France, Israel and the Southwest of the United States.
Archaeological evidence indicates that the mineral has been mined and smelted to obtain copper all across the world for over 3,000 years, including at the Great Orme Mines in Britain during the Neolithic, using stone and bone tools.
Malachite’s rich green color does not fade over time or when exposed to light, which along with its ability to be easily ground to a powder, made malachite a preferred pigment and coloring agent for thousands of years.